Sega's new console brought many features developers and users could appreciate. While this was Sega's last attempt in the console market, some technologies introduced here carried on in future mainstream devices.
It comes without surprise that Hitachi was chosen again to develop their CPU, if you've been reading the previous article then… Lo and behold! I present you the next-gen SH processor called SH-4 running at a whopping 200 MHz.
So, what's actually interesting about this new CPU? Well, we have the following:
Apart from the common chores CPUs are tasked to do (handling the game's logic, enemy's AI, commanding the GPU, etc), the SH-4 will be also involved in the graphics pipeline by performing geometry transformations, so it includes a 128-bit SIMD unit that enables it to manipulate multiple vectors at once.
The CPU includes a dedicated Memory Management Unit or ‘MMU’ for virtual addressing, this is helpful since the physical memory address space of this CPU happens to be 29-bit wide. So with the help of four TLBs, programmers can use 32-bit addresses without hitting performance penalties.
Since only 29 bits are needed for addressing, the extra three bits are used for memory protection, alternating the memory map and circumventing cache, respectively.
It's worth mentioning that this is up to the programmer to decide whether to use or not, games for this system certainly don't need memory protection and the MMU has to be manually enabled at boot.
While this system is not designed around the strict Unified Memory Architecture like a well-known competitor, it does delegate I/O access to the GPU.
That means that if the CPU has to fetch anything that's beyond its own dedicated RAM or a serial interface which is also connected too, it will have to request the GPU (and wait if necessary).
This CPU also features a unique functionality called Parallel I/O or ‘PIO’ that is used to manipulate multiple I/O locations at the same time. Sega wired up these pins so the CPU can manipulate the GPU's video mode (more details about this later).
The GPU package is custom-made chip called Holly running at 100 MHz, it's designed by VideoLogic (now known as Imagination Technologies) and manufactured by NEC. Holly's 3D core happens to be Videologic's PowerVR2 (also called ‘PowerVR Series2’ and ‘CLX2’).
VideoLogic chose an alternative approach for the construction of their 3D engine called Tile-Based Deferred Rendering or ‘TBDR’, which instead of rendering a whole frame at once (like traditional Immediate Mode Renderers or ‘IMR’ do), it divides the rendering area into multiple sections called ‘tiles’ and carries out the rendering process on each tile individually, then the result is combined to draw the final frame.
This new design can bring lots of new advantages, for instance it can be greatly parallelised, which significantly reduces bandwidth and power usage. It's no surprise that Imagination took this technology forward to build most of the smartphone's GPUs since this approach proved to be very efficient.
Let's take a look at the two main components of this GPU:
Before the whole rendering process starts, an extra component known as the Tile Accelerator does a bit of pre-processing first. It starts by allocating 32x32 tile bins where the geometry will be rendered at each bin respectively.
Then, the Tile Accelerator will:
These Display Lists will be interpreted by the 3D engine.
Here is where the graphics are brought into life, the Display Lists received from the TA will be used to render the geometry of a single tile using an internal frame-buffer. The process is as follows:
After the operation is completed, the rendered tile is written to the main frame-buffer in VRAM. This process is repeated until all tiles are finished, after that the resulting frame-buffer is picked by the Video encoder and sent through the video signal.
Holly can now draw ~10 times more polygons than its predecessor, here's a Before & After example that shows how model designs are not that limited any more. Try to fiddle with them!
The video system was designed to support multiple types of screens and formats, thus the video encoder outputs to a single-shaped socket that supports the following type of signals:
Now, the Dreamcast can't encode all of these at the same time, so the GPU and the Audio processor contain a register called Image Mode that coordinates which required video/audio buses will be activated in order to generate the requested signal. The CPU detects which type of cable is inserted (by checking which bits of the video connector are active) and writes the required values on the GPU which then will be forwarded to the Audio processor.
Since VGA is strictly a progressive type of signal (as opposed to the traditional interlaced), some compatibility issues arose with games which were only designed for interlaced video, these explicitly state in their code that won't display on VGA, so the CPU will block the game until the user swaps out the VGA cable for another type.
The GPU also includes another module for handling most of the I/O called System Bus. It provides the following interfaces:
The Audio functionality is handled by a custom chip called AICA made by Yamaha, it's an improved version of the SCSP used in the Saturn and composed of three components:
We've come so far since the days of the Mega Drive/Genesis, in order to show how much progress was made in sound synthesis, here's an example of two games, one for the Mega Drive and the other for the Dreamcast, that used the same composition:
Somehow this chip is also responsible for providing a Real Time Clock or ‘RTC’ to the BIOS, it's also connected to a clock battery in order to continue working without AC power.
During the console's lifespan, there has been two different OS that could run on the Dreamcast:
The 2 MB of ‘System ROM’ stores a BIOS that runs a small shell when the console is switched on.
It contains a simple graphical user interface to allow the user to perform basic but necessary tasks like:
Since the console was announced, it has been mentioned to run Windows CE (a stripped down version of Windows designed for handheld devices), although this can be a little deceiving because the user won't actually see a PDA system on this console.
In reality, the purpose of this system was very similar to what Nintendo did with their console: Provide programmers with a fair layer of abstraction in order to simplify certain operations.
In this case, Microsoft worked with Sega to bring Windows CE to the Dreamcast. The result was a subset of CE with the minimal components needed to provide graphics, audio, debugging and compatibility with software like Microsoft's star IDE… Visual Studio.
Some developers found this a very attractive tool since the audio-graphics framework included with CE was no other than DirectX 6, thus thousands of PC games of that era could -in theory- be easy to port for the Dreamcast.
In reality, the architectural differences between the Dreamcast and the conventional PC were too great to ignore, in addition, embedding this system increased the game's loading time (after all, the ‘OS’ had to be loaded from a disc) and Windows CE happened to eat a substantial part of resources from the Dreamcast (not surprisingly, PCs were already suffering from that).
At the end, Windows CE was just another choice for developers to embed in their game, nonetheless, the number of Dreamcast games written using Windows APIs & DirectX ended up being considerable.
Development was mainly done in C or C++: At first, C was the recommended choice since the available C++ compilers were initially very limited in functionality.
Sega also provided development hardware in the form of a PC-like tower called the Sega Katana Development Box, it's still Dreamcast hardware with enhanced I/O for development. It also came with a CD containing the official Katana SDK that can be installed on a Windows PC.
In the case developers chose Windows CE as their main framework instead (by switching to Dragon SDK), they also had DirectX 6.0 and Visual C++ 6.0 available to make their games.
Games are stored in GD-ROMs, which are just CD-ROM with a higher density of pits (reaching 1 GB of capacity). The speed is 12x which is not too shabby compared to the Saturn's 2x CD reader.
Dreamcasts shipped with a modem module installed which games could use to ‘call’ a dial-up service for online gaming, Sega provided two services: SegaNet (used in America and Japan) and Dreamarena (the European counterpart).
Players had to first register with a service by using an extra disc that came with some games called DreamKey, it basically provided a web browser used to register an account. Initially, DreamKey came a pre-configured service depending on the region, later revisions allowed users to alter its ISP settings to connect to any of them.
There was also a Keyboard and Mouse available to buy just in case the user fancied surfing the internet like in a PC.
Unfortunately, SegaNet and Dreamarena were discontinued two years after launch, games that exclusively relied on them are unusable unless such services are emulated using extra tools (like the DreamPi, a Raspberry Pi image that replicates them with the help of some servers maintained by a community of users).
Another innovative feature that this console included was the Visual Memory Unit or ‘VMU’, it is attached to the controller and, apart from serving as a memory card, it's a fully-fledged device that includes:
The VMU had to modes of operation:
The usage of the proprietary GD-ROM helped to stop the ability of making unauthorised copies of games and running them on other consoles.
Games are also region-locked meaning that the console will refuse to run a game if it's from a different region than the console.
In practice, the anti-piracy measures resulted to be utterly useless. This was due to Sega leaving a huge door opened: MIL-CD.
Music Interactive Live-CD or ‘MIL-CD’ is another format created by Sega that extended the Audio-CD format by adding an interactive program on it… and the Dreamcast is compatible with it.
Now, someone discovered that after managing to rip the contents of a GD-ROM and modifying its format to adhere to the MIL-CD, burning it on a conventional CD and putting in on the Dreamcast would just work. This let a unstoppable wave of burned discs and ISOs on the net.
Some problems surfed afterwards: Although GD-ROMs can store 1 GB of data, CD-ROMs can only fit ~700 MB, so how could ‘rippers’ fit big games on a CD? By compressing music and graphics until it fits, they may even try to split it in two discs. After all, inside discs there are just files and folders!
Hope you enjoyed reading the article, I've just finished writing it during the start of my final year at uni.
I'll probably be very busy from now on, but I do enjoy writing these articles so hopefully you'll get the next one in a few weeks!
Until next time!
This article is part of the Architecture of Consoles series. If you found it interesting please consider donating, your contribution will be used to get more tools and resources that will help to improve the quality of current articles and upcoming ones.
A list of desirable tools and latest acquisitions for this article are tracked in here:
## Interesting hardware to get (ordered by priority) - Nothing else, unless you got something in mind worth checking out ## Acquired tools used - A Dreamcast console with controllers and VMUs (£40) - A game (Sonic Adventure, £9)
Always nice to keep a record of changes.
## 2019-10-24 - Added some 3d models to fiddle with. ## 2019-10-09 - Correction + Additions regarding GPU transparency, SegaNet and the SDK, thanks /r/dreamcast! ## 2019-10-08 - Added SIMD core ## 2019-10-07 - It's alive!